NCERT UNIT 19 – Excretory Products and their Elimination CBSE Class 11 Biology

DISORDERS OF EXCRETORY SYSTEM

• Uremia:

Accumulation of urea in the blood due to malfunction of the kidney. It may lead to kidney failure (renal failure).

• Renal calculi:

Stone or insoluble mass of crystallized salts (oxalates, etc.) formed within the kidney.

NCERT - Excretory Products and their Elimination CBSE Class 11  Biology

• Glomerulonephritits:

Inflammation of glomeruli.

Hemodialysis

NCERT - Excretory Products and their Elimination CBSE Class 11  Biology  haemodialysis

– It is a process of removal of urea in patients with uremia. – The dialyzing unit (artificial kidney) contains a coiled cellophane tube surrounded by dialyzing fluid ( It has the same composition of plasma except for nitrogenous wastes.)

– Blood drained from a convenient artery is pumped into the dialyzing unit after adding anticoagulant like heparin.

– The porous cellophane membrane of the tube allows the passage of molecules based on the concentration gradient.

– As nitrogenous wastes are absent in dialyzing fluid, these substances freely move out, thereby clearing the blood.

– The purified blood is pumped back to the body through a vein after adding anti-heparin to it.

Kidney transplantation

– It is the ultimate method in the correction of acute renal failures. A functioning kidney is taken from a donor.

– It is better to receive a kidney from a close relative to minimize chances of rejection by the immune system of the host.

UREA CYCLE

NCERT - Excretory Products and their Elimination CBSE Class 11  Biology  UREA CYCLE

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